An automated meta-analysis of 110 studies
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    Studies associated with the feature "music"

    Feeling the beat: premotor and striatal interactions in musicians and nonmusicians during beat perceptionGrahn JA, Rowe JBJournal of Neuroscience0.0034
    Musical and verbal semantic memory: two distinct neural networks?Groussard M, Viader F, Hubert V, Landeau B, Abbas A, Desgranges B, Eustache F, Platel HNeuroImage0.0224
    Cognitive priming in sung and instrumental music: activation of inferior frontal cortexTillmann B, Koelsch S, Escoffier N, Bigand E, Lalitte P, Friederici AD, von Cramon DYNeuroImage0.0144
    Left anterior temporal cortex actively engages in speech perception: A direct cortical stimulation studyMatsumoto R, Imamura H, Inouchi M, Nakagawa T, Yokoyama Y, Matsuhashi M, Mikuni N, Miyamoto S, Fukuyama H, Takahashi R, Ikeda ANeuropsychologia0.0018
    Brain networks for integrative rhythm formationThaut MH, Demartin M, Sanes JNPLoS ONE0.0035
    Interactions between auditory and dorsal premotor cortex during synchronization to musical rhythmsChen JL, Zatorre RJ, Penhune VBNeuroImage0.002
    The rewards of music listening: response and physiological connectivity of the mesolimbic systemMenon V, Levitin DJNeuroImage0.014
    Effects of long-term practice and task complexity in musicians and nonmusicians performing simple and complex motor tasks: implications for cortical motor organizationMeister I, Krings T, Foltys H, Boroojerdi B, Muller M, Topper R, Thron AHuman Brain Mapping0.0028
    Musical training-induced functional reorganization of the adult brain: functional magnetic resonance imaging and transcranial magnetic stimulation study on amateur string playersKim DE, Shin MJ, Lee KM, Chu K, Woo SH, Kim YR, Song EC, Lee JW, Park SH, Roh JKHuman Brain Mapping0.0062
    Toward a brain-based theory of beautyIshizu T, Zeki SPLoS ONE0.0064
    Functional anatomy of language and music perception: temporal and structural factors investigated using functional magnetic resonance imagingRogalsky C, Rong F, Saberi K, Hickok GThe Journal of Neuroscience0.0095
    Increased activation in superior temporal gyri as a function of increment in phonetic featuresOsnes B, Hugdahl K, Hjelmervik H, Specht KBrain and Language0.0021
    Locating the initial stages of speech-sound processing in human temporal cortexUppenkamp S, Johnsrude IS, Norris D, Marslen-Wilson W, Patterson RDNeuroImage0.004
    Reduced language lateralization in first-episode schizophrenia: an fMRI index of functional asymmetryBleich-Cohen M, Hendler T, Kotler M, Strous RDPsychiatry Research: Neuroimaging0.0066
    The relationship of lyrics and tunes in the processing of unfamiliar songs: a functional magnetic resonance adaptation studySammler D, Baird A, Valabregue R, Clement S, Dupont S, Belin P, Samson SThe Journal of Neuroscience0.0025
    Investigating emotion with music: an fMRI studyKoelsch S, Fritz T, V Cramon DY, Muller K, Friederici ADHuman Brain Mapping0.0127
    Music and emotions in the brain: familiarity mattersPereira CS, Teixeira J, Figueiredo P, Xavier J, Castro SL, Brattico EPLoS ONE0.0199
    Scanning silence: mental imagery of complex soundsBunzeck N, Wuestenberg T, Lutz K, Heinze HJ, Jancke LNeuroImage0.0021
    Mapping aesthetic musical emotions in the brainTrost W, Ethofer T, Zentner M, Vuilleumier PCerebral Cortex0.0115
    The neurocognitive components of pitch processing: insights from absolute pitchWilson SJ, Lusher D, Wan CY, Dudgeon P, Reutens DCCerebral Cortex0.0031
    Listening to musical rhythms recruits motor regions of the brainChen JL, Penhune VB, Zatorre RJCerebral Cortex0.0042
    The brain basis of piano performanceParsons LM, Sergent J, Hodges DA, Fox PTNeuropsychologia0.0105
    Metabolic and electric brain patterns during pleasant and unpleasant emotions induced by music masterpiecesFlores-Gutierrez EO, Diaz JL, Barrios FA, Favila-Humara R, Guevara MA, del Rio-Portilla Y, Corsi-Cabrera MInternational Journal of Psychophysiology0.0193
    Selective neurophysiologic responses to music in instrumentalists with different listening biographiesMargulis EH, Mlsna LM, Uppunda AK, Parrish TB, Wong PCHuman Brain Mapping0.0131
    Activation of premotor vocal areas during musical discriminationBrown S, Martinez MJBrain and Cognition0.0062
    Generation of novel motor sequences: the neural correlates of musical improvisationBerkowitz AL, Ansari DNeuroImage0.005
    Investigation of melodic contour processing in the brain using multivariate pattern-based fMRILee YS, Janata P, Frost C, Hanke M, Granger RNeuroImage0.004
    Dissociable systems of working memory for rhythm and melodyJerde TA, Childs SK, Handy ST, Nagode JC, Pardo JVNeuroImage0.0049
    Goal-independent mechanisms for free response generation: creative and pseudo-random performance share neural substratesde Manzano O, Ullen FNeuroImage0.0113
    Congruence of happy and sad emotion in music and faces modifies cortical audiovisual activationJeong JW, Diwadkar VA, Chugani CD, Sinsoongsud P, Muzik O, Behen ME, Chugani HT, Chugani DCNeuroImage0.0214
    Detection of differential speech-specific processes in the temporal lobe using fMRI and a dynamic "sound morphing" techniqueSpecht K, Osnes B, Hugdahl KHuman Brain Mapping0.0074
    Representation of perceived sound valence in the human brainViinikainen M, Katsyri J, Sams MHuman Brain Mapping0.0014
    Synchronized drumming enhances activity in the caudate and facilitates prosocial commitment--if the rhythm comes easilyKokal I, Engel A, Kirschner S, Keysers CPLoS ONE0.0013
    Memory of music: roles of right hippocampus and left inferior frontal gyrusWatanabe T, Yagishita S, Kikyo HNeuroImage0.0127
    Song and speech: brain regions involved with perception and covert productionCallan DE, Tsytsarev V, Hanakawa T, Callan AM, Katsuhara M, Fukuyama H, Turner RNeuroImage0.0037
    Understanding the intentions behind man-made products elicits neural activity in areas dedicated to mental state attributionSteinbeis N, Koelsch SCerebral Cortex0.0081
    Neural bases of individual differences in beat perceptionGrahn JA, McAuley JDNeuroImage0.0014
    Dissociation between melodic and rhythmic processing during piano performance from musical scoresBengtsson SL, Ullen FNeuroImage0.0027
    Neural correlates of pre-attentive processing of pattern deviance in professional musiciansHabermeyer B, Herdener M, Esposito F, Hilti CC, Klarhofer M, di Salle F, Wetzel S, Scheffler K, Cattapan-Ludewig K, Seifritz EHuman Brain Mapping0.0089
    The neural basis of human danceBrown S, Martinez MJ, Parsons LMCerebral Cortex0.0078
    Broca's area supports enhanced visuospatial cognition in orchestral musiciansSluming V, Brooks J, Howard M, Downes JJ, Roberts NJournal of Neuroscience0.0047
    Endogenous neuromagnetic activity for mental hierarchy of timingFujioka T, Zendel BR, Ross BThe Journal of Neuroscience0.0023
    Investigating brain response to music: a comparison of different fMRI acquisition schemesMueller K, Mildner T, Fritz T, Lepsien J, Schwarzbauer C, Schroeter ML, Moller HENeuroImage0.0053
    Differential neural activity during search of specific and general autobiographical memories elicited by musical cuesFord JH, Addis DR, Giovanello KSNeuropsychologia0.0046
    Absolute pitch--functional evidence of speech-relevant auditory acuityOechslin MS, Meyer M, Jancke LCerebral Cortex0.0078
    The structural neuroanatomy of music emotion recognition: evidence from frontotemporal lobar degenerationOmar R, Henley SM, Bartlett JW, Hailstone JC, Gordon E, Sauter DA, Frost C, Scott SK, Warren JDNeuroImage0.0181
    Action expertise reduces brain activity for audiovisual matching actions: an fMRI study with expert drummersPetrini K, Pollick FE, Dahl S, McAleer P, McKay LS, Rocchesso D, Waadeland CH, Love S, Avanzini F, Puce ANeuroImage0.002
    Learning to play a melody: an fMRI study examining the formation of auditory-motor associationsChen JL, Rae C, Watkins KENeuroImage0.0022
    Large-scale brain networks emerge from dynamic processing of musical timbre, key and rhythmAlluri V, Toiviainen P, Jaaskelainen IP, Glerean E, Sams M, Brattico ENeuroImage0.0073
    Neuroanatomical correlates of musicianship as revealed by cortical thickness and voxel-based morphometryBermudez P, Lerch JP, Evans AC, Zatorre RJCerebral Cortex0.0039
    Brain regions with mirror properties: a meta-analysis of 125 human fMRI studiesMolenberghs P, Cunnington R, Mattingley JBNeuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews0.001
    Finding your voice: a singing lesson from functional imagingWilson SJ, Abbott DF, Lusher D, Gentle EC, Jackson GDHuman Brain Mapping0.0017
    Distinct functional contributions of primary sensory and association areas to audiovisual integration in object categorizationWerner S, Noppeney UThe Journal of Neuroscience0.001
    Verbal memory retrieval engages visual cortex in musiciansHuang Z, Zhang JX, Yang Z, Dong G, Wu J, Chan AS, Weng XNeuroscience0.0037
    Superadditive responses in superior temporal sulcus predict audiovisual benefits in object categorizationWerner S, Noppeney UCerebral Cortex0.0016
    How one's favorite song activates the reward circuitry of the brain: personality matters!Montag C, Reuter M, Axmacher NBehavioural Brain Research0.0099
    Music and language side by side in the brain: a PET study of the generation of melodies and sentencesBrown S, Martinez MJ, Parsons LMEuropean Journal of Neuroscience0.0106
    Gray matter density and white matter integrity in pianists' brain: a combined structural and diffusion tensor MRI studyHan Y, Yang H, Lv YT, Zhu CZ, He Y, Tang HH, Gong QY, Luo YJ, Zang YF, Dong QNeuroscience Letters0.0012
    Functional MRI evidence of an abnormal neural network for pitch processing in congenital amusiaHyde KL, Zatorre RJ, Peretz ICerebral Cortex0.0026
    Evolution of non-speech sound memory in postlingual deafness: implications for cochlear implant rehabilitationLazard DS, Giraud AL, Truy E, Lee HJNeuropsychologia0.0015
    Neuroarchitecture of verbal and tonal working memory in nonmusicians and musiciansSchulze K, Zysset S, Mueller K, Friederici AD, Koelsch SHuman Brain Mapping0.0013
    Cognitive versus automatic mechanisms of mood induction differentially activate left and right amygdalaDyck M, Loughead J, Kellermann T, Boers F, Gur RC, Mathiak KNeuroImage0.0048
    A parietal-temporal sensory-motor integration area for the human vocal tract: evidence from an fMRI study of skilled musiciansPa J, Hickok GNeuropsychologia0.0027
    Cortical representation of natural complex sounds: effects of acoustic features and auditory object categoryLeaver AM, Rauschecker JPThe Journal of Neuroscience0.0018
    From air oscillations to music and speech: functional magnetic resonance imaging evidence for fine-tuned neural networks in auditionTervaniemi M, Szameitat AJ, Kruck S, Schroger E, Alter K, De Baene W, Friederici ADJournal of Neuroscience0.0153
    Separate cortical networks involved in music perception: preliminary functional MRI evidence for modularity of music processingSchmithorst VJNeuroImage0.0096
    Cross-cultural music phrase processing: an fMRI studyNan Y, Knosche TR, Zysset S, Friederici ADHuman Brain Mapping0.0157
    The music of your emotions: neural substrates involved in detection of emotional correspondence between auditory and visual music actionsPetrini K, Crabbe F, Sheridan C, Pollick FEPLoS ONE0.009
    Can you hear a difference? Neuronal correlates of melodic deviance processing in childrenWehrum S, Dege F, Ott U, Walter B, Stippekohl B, Kagerer S, Schwarzer G, Vaitl D, Stark RBrain Research0.0138
    Functional and dysfunctional brain circuits underlying emotional processing of music in autism spectrum disordersCaria A, Venuti P, de Falco SCerebral Cortex0.0184
    Neuroplasticity of semantic representations for musical instruments in professional musiciansHoenig K, Muller C, Herrnberger B, Sim EJ, Spitzer M, Ehret G, Kiefer MNeuroImage0.0129
    Neural mechanisms involved in the oral representation of percussion music: an fMRI studyTsai CG, Chen CC, Chou TL, Chen JHBrain and Cognition0.0221
    Perceptual decisions formed by accumulation of audiovisual evidence in prefrontal cortexNoppeney U, Ostwald D, Werner SThe Journal of Neuroscience0.0011
    The emotional power of music: how music enhances the feeling of affective picturesBaumgartner T, Lutz K, Schmidt CF, Jancke LBrain Research0.0061
    A role for the right superior temporal sulcus in categorical perception of musical chordsKlein ME, Zatorre RJNeuropsychologia0.0023
    Auditory-motor expertise alters "speech selectivity" in professional musicians and actorsDick F, Lee HL, Nusbaum H, Price CJCerebral Cortex0.0149
    fMRI evidence for a cortical hierarchy of pitch pattern processingStewart L, Overath T, Warren JD, Foxton JM, Griffiths TDPLoS ONE0.0012
    Passive somatosensory discrimination tasks in healthy volunteers: differential networks involved in familiar versus unfamiliar shape and length discriminationVan de Winckel A, Sunaert S, Wenderoth N, Peeters R, Van Hecke P, Feys H, Horemans E, Marchal G, Swinnen SP, Perfetti C, De Weerdt WNeuroImage0.0052
    The brain of opera singers: experience-dependent changes in functional activationKleber B, Veit R, Birbaumer N, Gruzelier J, Lotze MCerebral Cortex0.0018
    A network for audio-motor coordination in skilled pianists and non-musiciansBaumann S, Koeneke S, Schmidt CF, Meyer M, Lutz K, Jancke LBrain Research0.0053
    Feeling the real world: limbic response to music depends on related contentEldar E, Ganor O, Admon R, Bleich A, Hendler TCerebral Cortex0.014
    Neural correlates of consonance, dissonance, and the hierarchy of musical pitch in the human brainstemBidelman GM, Krishnan AJournal of Neuroscience0.0198
    Reduced recruitment of motor association areas during bimanual coordination in concert pianistsHaslinger B, Erhard P, Altenmuller E, Hennenlotter A, Schwaiger M, Grafin von Einsiedel H, Rummeny E, Conrad B, Ceballos-Baumann AOHuman Brain Mapping0.0023
    Shared networks for auditory and motor processing in professional pianists: evidence from fMRI conjunctionBangert M, Peschel T, Schlaug G, Rotte M, Drescher D, Hinrichs H, Heinze HJ, Altenmuller ENeuroImage0.0062
    A functional MRI study of happy and sad affective states induced by classical musicMitterschiffthaler MT, Fu CH, Dalton JA, Andrew CM, Williams SCHuman Brain Mapping0.0227
    Atypical processing of auditory temporal complexity in autisticsSamson F, Hyde KL, Bertone A, Soulieres I, Mendrek A, Ahad P, Mottron L, Zeffiro TANeuropsychologia0.001
    Language or music, mother or Mozart? Structural and environmental influences on infants' language networksDehaene-Lambertz G, Montavont A, Jobert A, Allirol L, Dubois J, Hertz-Pannier L, Dehaene SBrain and Language0.0042
    Common and distinct neural substrates for the perception of speech rhythm and intonationZhang L, Shu H, Zhou F, Wang X, Li PHuman Brain Mapping0.0011
    The neural substrates of musical memory revealed by fMRI and two semantic tasksGroussard M, Rauchs G, Landeau B, Viader F, Desgranges B, Eustache F, Platel HNeuroImage0.0202
    The feeling of familiarity of music and odors: the same neural signature?Plailly J, Tillmann B, Royet JPCerebral Cortex0.0107
    Evidence for endogenous opioid release in the amygdala during positive emotionKoepp MJ, Hammers A, Lawrence AD, Asselin MC, Grasby PM, Bench CJNeuroImage0.0011
    Impairment of auditory-motor timing and compensatory reorganization after ventral premotor cortex stimulationKornysheva K, Schubotz RIPLoS ONE0.0033
    Listening to rhythms activates motor and premotor corticesBengtsson SL, Ullen F, Ehrsson HH, Hashimoto T, Kito T, Naito E, Forssberg H, Sadato NCortex0.0013
    Distinct neural responses to chord violations: a multiple source analysis studyGarza Villarreal EA, Brattico E, Leino S, Ostergaard L, Vuust PBrain Research0.0065
    Brain activation during anticipation of sound sequencesLeaver AM, Van Lare J, Zielinski B, Halpern AR, Rauschecker JPJournal of Neuroscience0.0115
    The neural architecture of music-evoked autobiographical memoriesJanata PCerebral Cortex0.01
    A cardiac signature of emotionalityKoelsch S, Remppis A, Sammler D, Jentschke S, Mietchen D, Fritz T, Bonnemeier H, Siebel WAEuropean Journal of Neuroscience0.0015
    When music and long-term memory interact: effects of musical expertise on functional and structural plasticity in the hippocampusGroussard M, La Joie R, Rauchs G, Landeau B, Chetelat G, Viader F, Desgranges B, Eustache F, Platel HPLoS ONE0.0128
    An fMRI investigation of the cultural specificity of music memoryDemorest SM, Morrison SJ, Stambaugh LA, Beken M, Richards TL, Johnson CSocial Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience0.0269
    The effect of musical experience on hemispheric lateralization in musical feature processingOno K, Nakamura A, Yoshiyama K, Kinkori T, Bundo M, Kato T, Ito KNeuroscience Letters0.0124
    Tuning-in to the beat: Aesthetic appreciation of musical rhythms correlates with a premotor activity boostKornysheva K, von Cramon DY, Jacobsen T, Schubotz RIHuman Brain Mapping0.0076
    The dorsal auditory pathway is involved in performance of both visual and auditory rhythmsKarabanov A, Blom O, Forsman L, Ullen FNeuroImage0.0012
    Negative stereotype activation alters interaction between neural correlates of arousal, inhibition and cognitive controlForbes CE, Cox CL, Schmader T, Ryan LSocial Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience0.0026
    EEG oscillatory patterns are associated with error prediction during music performance and are altered in musician's dystoniaRuiz MH, Strubing F, Jabusch HC, Altenmuller ENeuroImage0.0014
    Intensive language training and attention modulate the involvement of fronto-parietal regions during a non-verbal auditory discrimination taskElmer S, Meyer M, Marrama L, Jancke LEuropean Journal of Neuroscience0.0013
    Dynamic emotional and neural responses to music depend on performance expression and listener experienceChapin H, Jantzen K, Kelso JA, Steinberg F, Large EPLoS ONE0.0147
    A role for the intraparietal sulcus in transforming musical pitch informationFoster NE, Zatorre RJCerebral Cortex0.0066
    The spatiotemporal characteristics of elementary audiovisual speech and music processing in musically untrained subjectsElmer S, Meyer M, Jancke LInternational Journal of Psychophysiology0.0058
    Neural substrates of spontaneous musical performance: an FMRI study of jazz improvisationLimb CJ, Braun ARPLoS ONE0.0108
    Adults and children processing music: an fMRI studyKoelsch S, Fritz T, Schulze K, Alsop D, Schlaug GNeuroImage0.015

    What is this?

    This page displays information for an automated Neurosynth meta-analysis of the feature "music". The meta-analysis was performed by automatically identifying all studies in the Neurosynth database that loaded highly on the feature, and then performing meta-analyses to identify brain regions that were consistently or preferentially reported in the tables of those studies.

    What do the "forward inference" and "reverse inference" maps mean?

    For a detailed explanation, please see our Nature Methods paper. In brief, the forward inference map displays brain regions that are consistently active in studies that load highly on the feature "music". Regions with large z-scores are reported more often than one would expect them to be if activation anywhere in the brain was equally likely. Note that this is typically not so interesting, because it turns out that some brain regions are consistently reported in a lot of different kinds of studies (again, see our paper). So as a general rule of thumb, we don't recommend paying much attention to forward inference maps.

    Reverse inference maps are, roughly, maps displaying brain regions that are preferentially active for the feature in question. The reverse inference map for music displays regions that are reported more often in studies that load highly on this feature than in studies that do not load highly on this feature. Most of the time this a much more useful way of thinking about things, since reverse inference maps tell you, in some sense, which brain regions are more diagnostic of the feature in question, and not just which regions are consistently activated in studies associated with that feature.

    How do you identify studies associated with a feature?

    That depends on the kind of feature. At present, most of the features on this website are term-based, meaning that the meta-analyses are based strictly on how frequently a term (in the present case, 'music') was used in an article. By default, we use a threshold of 0.001, meaning that we consider a study to be associated with a feature if it uses that term at least once every 1,000 words on average. For features that aren't term-based, study selection criteria may vary.

    I need more details! How exactly were these maps and data generated?

    If you want to know exactly how things work, we encourage you to clone the Neurosynth python tools from our github repository and work through some of the examples and code provided in the package. Everything you see on this page was generated using the default processing stream, so you should be able to easily generate the exact same images (unless the underlying database has grown or changed) for yourself.